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Its official language is Uzbek, a Turkic language written in the Latin alphabet and spoken natively by approximately 85% of the population.Russian has widespread use; it is the most widely taught second language.It was gradually incorporated into the Russian Empire during the 19th century, with Tashkent becoming the political center of Russian Turkestan.In 1924, after national delimitation, the constituent republic of the Soviet Union known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was created.Less than 10% of its territory is intensively cultivated irrigated land in river valleys and oases. The highest point in Uzbekistan is the Khazret Sultan, at 4,643 metres (15,233 ft) above sea level, in the southern part of the Gissar Range in Surkhandarya Province, on the border with Tajikistan, just northwest of Dushanbe (formerly called Peak of the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party).Uzbekistan has a rich and diverse natural environment.
Following the death of Islam Karimov in 2016, the second president — Shavkat Mirziyoyev started a new course, which was described as a A Quiet Revolution and Revolution from Above.
Uzbeks constitute 81% of the population, followed by Russians (5.4%), Tajiks (4.0%), Kazakhs (3.0%), and others (6.5%).
Muslims constitute 79% of the population while 5% of the population follow Russian Orthodox Christianity, and 16% of the population follow other religions and non-religious.
Following the succession of the local rulers of Khwarezmian dynasty in the 11th century, the region fell to the Mongol invasion in the 13th century.
The city of Shahrisabz was the birthplace of Timur, who in 14th century established the Timurid Empire and was proclaimed the Supreme Emir of Turan.
Due to the Aral Sea problem, high salinity and contamination of the soil with heavy elements are especially widespread in Karakalpakstan, the region of Uzbekistan adjacent to the Aral Sea.